Functions & disorders caused by the deficiency of Niacin, Folic acid, Protein, Riboflavin, Vitamin D

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List the functions & disorders caused by the deficiency of the following:
i) Niacin
ii) Folic acid
iii) Protein
iv) Riboflavin
v) Vitamin D

i) Niacin
Pellagra: Pellagra is a nutritional disorder due to the deficiency of niacin, one of the B-complex group of vitamins in the diet.

Functions: One of the main functions of niacin, along with the other B vitamins, is to convert food to fuel that our body can use. The B vitamins also help metabolize fats & proteins. Niacin helps keep our skin, hair, eyes & liver healthy & is necessary to the nervous system functioning properly.

ii) Folic acid
Folic acids an important role in blood formation. Folic acid is important for the proper development of red blood cells so the deficiency of folic acid leads to anaemia.

Functions: Folic acid, along with vitamin B12 is important for the formation of red blood cells. Lack of these two vital nutrients leads to a variety of anaemia called macrocytic anaemia. This means the red blood cells appear bloated & large & have a reduced capacity to carry oxygen.



iii) Protein
(a) Marasmus: Young children & infants are vulnerable to consequences of lack of protein. Marasmus is a severe lack of important nutrients.
(b) Kwashiorkor: Lack of protein from carbohydrates sources like rice, bananas cause kwashiorkor.

Functions: Proteins play many vital roles in the human body, including providing structure & strength to cells & tissues, controlling biochemical reactions & aiding the immune system. Metabolism is regulated by proteins as are hormones & the various activities they control. Protein also regulates cell division, which acts to replenish aged or damaged cells to ensure a constant supply of healthy cells.

iv) Ribiflavin
Ariboflavinosis is a nutritional deficiency occurring due to reduced intake of riboflavin through the diet.

Functions: Riboflavin is needed for energy metabolism, building tissue, & helps maintain good vision.

v) Vitamin D
Ricket is a disease of growing children in which the bones become softened & deformed due to the deficiency of vitamin D. Osteomalacia is the adult format vitamin D deficiency.

Functions: Vitamin D helps the body absorb calcium & phosphate are two minerals that are essential for normal bone formation.

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